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03 July 2020

The Other Pandemic: The Effects of the Coronavirus Crisis on Mental Health

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In March 2020, when the media began to warn that the new coronavirus that had emerged in China was spreading around the world, one of the first reactions of many of us was unexpected; in a variety of countries, throngs of people rushed to shops to stock up on toilet paper. This was perhaps the first manifestation of how, beyond the effects of the virus itself, both the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic of COVID-19 and the measures laid down by the authorities have also had a significant psychological impact on a segment of the population. This is the other pandemic, that of those who have not fallen ill from the virus, but whose mental health has been affected in one way or another by an unprecedented crisis in their lives. 

Even taking into account the 2009 H1N1 flu pandemic or the Ebola outbreak that shook the world in 2014, nothing has been able to disrupt the lives of the citizens of the planet like the current pandemic. For those who have fallen ill, for health workers exposed to serious risk or for people who have suffered other kinds of indirect consequences such as the loss of their jobs due to the shutdown of trade and industry, the psychological impact is obvious. But many of those who are not in any of the above situations, and are not even among the risk groups most vulnerable to COVID-19, are also experiencing negative effects on their mental health.

Toilet paper, a symbol of safety

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), which has been paying attention to this problem since the beginning of the pandemic, “in public mental health terms, the main psychological impact to date is elevated rates of stress or anxiety.” One of its earliest expressions was the stockpiling of certain consumer goods, especially toilet paper. Through an online survey of nearly 1,000 volunteers in 22 countries, a team of researchers from the universities of St. Gallen (Switzerland) and Münster (Germany) and the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology have unravelled the profile of these people: a high perception of risk from the virus —more so as they get older—, a predisposition towards being emotional, and a significant level of awareness or responsibility (conscientiousness), one of the five major personality traits. .

According to the researchers, toilet paper functions as a purely subjective symbol of safety. Credit: Darte Sidious

According to the researchers, “toilet paper functions as a purely subjective symbol of safety.” But contrary to the idea that spread through social media at that time, the study shows that people who threw themselves into this compulsive stockpiling were not motivated by selfishness or a lack of solidarity towards others, so messages based on empathy do not hit the target. “These results emphasize the importance of clear communication by public authorities acknowledging anxiety and, at the same time, transmitting a sense of control,” the authors write.

Stress and anxiety are naturally linked to the threat of the pandemic, but the measures introduced by governments in many countries, such as confinements, school closures or quarantines, increase psychological pressure to such an extent that, according to the WHO, “levels of loneliness, depression, harmful alcohol and drug use, and self-harm or suicidal behaviour are also expected to rise.” Psychologist Elke Van Hoof of the Free University of Brussels wrote that the confinement of 2.6 billion people by COVID-19 has been “the largest psychological experiment ever conducted in the world.” But Van Hoof warns: “We will pay the price.”

Parents with minor children and adolescents

A variety of studies have already confirmed the effects of the pandemic on the mental well-being of large segments of the population. A survey conducted in the US by researchers from Johns Hopkins University reveals that the number of adults with psychological distress has grown from 3.9% before this crisis to 13.6% in April 2020. Contrary to what might be expected, the increase is more pronounced in the 18-29 age group, where these symptoms have increased eightfold, from 3.7% to 24%. According to study co-author Emma McGinty, “the distress experienced during COVID-19 may transfer to longer-term psychiatric disorders requiring clinical care.” Another study from San Diego and Florida state universities finds a 28% risk of mental disorder, up from 3.4% in 2018, and with a higher incidence among 18-44 year olds. According to study co-author Jean Twenge, 70% of those surveyed meet the criteria for moderate or severe mental disorder.

Efectos mentales de la pandemia-Según un estudio, los niños en confinamiento han experimentado cambios emocionales y de conducta. Crédito:
According to a study,  children in confinement had experienced emotional and behavioural changes. Credit:

The reasons why younger people seem to suffer most from the psychological effects of the pandemic may be diverse. According to Twenge, fear of economic precariousness may be a relevant factor, along with the aggravation of increased social isolation in the Internet age. But there is a third factor; parents with minor children at home have emerged as one of the most affected groups, reversing the classic trend of parents having greater mental well-being than their childless peers.

Children and adolescents themselves are another group at risk of suffering the mental aftermath of the pandemic. In Spain, where one of the strictest confinements in Europe was put in place, between March and April adults were allowed to leave the home for essential tasks and even dogs were allowed to go out for their prescribed walks, but youngsters remained locked up inside for six weeks without the possibility of even stepping on the street. A study by the University Miguel Hernández, in collaboration with the University of Perugia (Italy), found that more than 85% of children in confinement had experienced emotional and behavioural changes, including difficulty concentrating, irritability, feelings of loneliness and uneasiness. In contrast, there was less of an impact on Italian children, who were able to walk outside near their homes.

More vivid dreams and poorer sleep quality

The study of the Spanish children also found that they slept more hours during confinement, a change that has not been limited just to youngsters. Some studies have shown that adults have also taken advantage of the quarantine and the shutdown of social events to prolong their nightly sleep by 15 to 30 minutes. However, this has not necessarily been accompanied by an improvement in sleep quality. According to the co-author of one of these studies, Christine Blume, at the University of Basel (Switzerland), “overall sleep quality decreased.” “This unprecedented situation of the pandemic and the lockdown increased self-perceived burden and had adverse effects on sleep quality.” Some experts have reported disorders such as more vivid dreams, while others have warned of the health risks of poorer sleep quality.

BBVA-OpenMind-Javier Janes- los efectos de la crisis del coronavirus en la salud mental-4-Los adultos han aprovechado las cuarentenas para prolongar su sueño entre 15 y 30 minutos más. Crédito: Ivan Oboleninov
Adults have also taken advantage of the quarantine to prolong their nightly sleep by 15 to 30 minutes. Credit: Ivan Oboleninov

Faced with this reality, specialists insist that the authorities must provide adequate coverage, both informational and health care, and perhaps prepare for an escalation in cases needing treatment as steep as that of the pandemic itself. But they also suggest that, for our part, we can help ourselves: regular sleep, proper nutrition, avoiding toxic habits, maintaining social activity, getting some physical exercise, and spending time in nature can help make the new normal as close as possible to the old one, at least as far as our mental health is concerned.

Javier Yanes


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