Director of the Finnish Institute of International Affairs. Earlier he was President of the Academy of Finland (2004–7), Director of the Helsinki Collegium of Advanced Studies (2002–4), and Professor/Director at the Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies at the University of Notre Dame (1993-2002), Dean of Faculty of Social Sciences at the University of Helsinki (1990-93), Visiting Professor at Princeton, Harvard and Minnesota Universities; Professor, University of Helsinki (1978-93), and Director of Tampere Peace Research Institute (1972-78). Early this year he was appointed Chairman of the Board of the University of Lapland. He is a widely published author and holds many positions of trust. He is the Chair of the Scientific Advisory Board of the European Science Foundation and a member of the Board of the International Peace Research Institute in Oslo.
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